Science Magazine

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  • Thu, 17 Oct 2019 17:39:31 +0000: Coordination between stochastic and deterministic specification in the Drosophila visual system - Science current issue

    Sensory systems use stochastic fate specification to increase their repertoire of neuronal types. How these stochastic decisions are coordinated with the development of their targets is unknown. In the Drosophila retina, two subtypes of ultraviolet-sensitive R7 photoreceptors are stochastically specified. In contrast, their targets in the brain are specified through a deterministic program. We identified subtypes of the main target of R7, the Dm8 neurons, each specific to the different subtypes of R7s. Dm8 subtypes are produced in excess by distinct neuronal progenitors, independently from R7. After matching with their cognate R7, supernumerary Dm8s are eliminated by apoptosis. Two interacting cell adhesion molecules, Dpr11 and DIP, are essential for the matching of one of the synaptic pairs. These mechanisms allow the qualitative and quantitative matching of R7 and Dm8 and thereby permit the stochastic choice made in R7 to propagate to the brain.

  • Thu, 17 Oct 2019 17:39:31 +0000: Comment on "The global tree restoration potential" - Science current issue

    Bastin et al. (Reports, 5 July 2019, p. 76) claim that global tree restoration is the most effective climate change solution to date, with a reported carbon storage potential of 205 gigatonnes of carbon. However, this estimate and its implications for climate mitigation are inconsistent with the dynamics of the global carbon cycle and its response to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions.

  • Thu, 17 Oct 2019 17:39:31 +0000: Comment on "The global tree restoration potential" - Science current issue

    Bastin et al.’s estimate (Reports, 5 July 2019, p. 76) that tree planting for climate change mitigation could sequester 205 gigatonnes of carbon is approximately five times too large. Their analysis inflated soil organic carbon gains, failed to safeguard against warming from trees at high latitudes and elevations, and considered afforestation of savannas, grasslands, and shrublands to be restoration.

  • Thu, 17 Oct 2019 17:39:31 +0000: Comment on "The global tree restoration potential" - Science current issue

    Bastin et al. (Reports, 5 July 2019, p. 76) neglect considerable research into forest-based climate change mitigation during the 1980s and 1990s. This research supports some of their findings on the area of land technically suitable for expanding tree cover, and can be used to extend their analysis to include the area of actually available land and operational feasibility.

  • Thu, 17 Oct 2019 17:39:31 +0000: Adaptive archaic introgression of copy number variants and the discovery of previously unknown human genes - Science current issue

    Copy number variants (CNVs) are subject to stronger selective pressure than single-nucleotide variants, but their roles in archaic introgression and adaptation have not been systematically investigated. We show that stratified CNVs are significantly associated with signatures of positive selection in Melanesians and provide evidence for adaptive introgression of large CNVs at chromosomes 16p11.2 and 8p21.3 from Denisovans and Neanderthals, respectively. Using long-read sequence data, we reconstruct the structure and complex evolutionary history of these polymorphisms and show that both encode positively selected genes absent from most human populations. Our results collectively suggest that large CNVs originating in archaic hominins and introgressed into modern humans have played an important role in local population adaptation and represent an insufficiently studied source of large-scale genetic variation.

 

Life Science

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Tropical Biology

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USDA

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  • Tue, 28 Feb 2017 06:00:00 +0000: USDA Announces Funding to Improve Rural Electric Infrastructure in Nine States - USDA - Latest News Releases
    WASHINGTON, Feb. 28, 2017 – Rural Development Acting Deputy Under Secretary Roger Glendenning today announced that USDA is making loans to electric cooperatives that will help continue to deliver safe, reliable and affordable electricity to rural residents, business and institutions in nine states.
  • Mon, 27 Feb 2017 06:00:00 +0000: USDA Helps Expand Broadband Service in Rural Illinois and Oklahoma - USDA - Latest News Releases
    WASHINGTON, Feb. 27, 2017 – Acting Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development Roger Glendenning today announced that USDA is awarding $19.3 million in loans to provide broadband in rural portions of Illinois and Oklahoma.
  • Wed, 22 Feb 2017 06:00:00 +0000: USDA Invests $103 Million to Protect Lives, Property After Natural Disasters - USDA - Latest News Releases
    WASHINGTON, Feb. 22, 2017 – Acting Deputy Agriculture Secretary Michael Young today announced U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is investing up to $103 million in fiscal year 2017 for disaster recovery efforts to help state, local and tribal units of government protect lives and property in disaster-affected areas following natural disasters.
  • Wed, 15 Feb 2017 06:00:00 +0000: Acting Secretary of Agriculture Visits Workers Impacted By Louisiana Tornado and Tours Storm Damage - USDA - Latest News Releases
    WASHINGTON, Feb. 15, 2017 - Acting Agriculture Deputy Secretary Mike Young visited the displaced workers of the USDA Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO) National Finance Center (NFC) Monday after an EF-3 tornado hit the New Orleans-based NFC building last week, causing severe damage. No one was seriously hurt as a result of the storm, which struck at approximately 11:20 a.m., Tuesday, Feb. 7, 2017.
  • Fri, 10 Feb 2017 06:00:00 +0000: USDA Reminds Individuals and Small Businesses in Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming that USDA Offers Disaster Assistance Programs to Help - USDA - Latest News Releases
    WASHINGTON, Feb. 10, 2017 - The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reminds farmers and ranchers, families and small businesses that could potentially be affected by the recent storms that USDA has several programs that provide assistance before, during and after disasters. USDA staff in the regional, State and county offices in the states of Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming are ready to help.

 

ESA

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  • Mon, 07 Oct 2019 20:12:51 +0000: Policy News: October 7, 2019 - EcoTone: news and views on ecological science
    In This Issue: Senate Spending Bills Include Modest Increase for NSF, Interior Agencies NSF receives 3% increase. States Challenge New Endangered Species Act Regulations in Courts House Natural Resources Committee pushes a bill to reverse regulations; Congressional Western Caucus releases draft legislation to codify the new rules. Newest IPCC Report Highlights ‘Unprecedented and Enduring Changes […]
  • Mon, 07 Oct 2019 19:32:19 +0000: Data Questions? Data Help Desk has the Answers - EcoTone: news and views on ecological science
    Representatives from seven data-intensive organizations shared their expertise and insights with more than 200 booth visitors at ESA2019.
  • Tue, 01 Oct 2019 13:46:04 +0000: ESA wins Cooperative Agreement with NPS to manage the Future Park Leaders of Emerging Change (FPL) program - EcoTone: news and views on ecological science
    The Ecological Society of America (ESA) is proud to announce the launch of its new partnership with the National Park Service Future Park Leaders of Emerging Change (FPL) program. The FPL program supports paid internships to address resource management issues arising from global drivers of environmental change in national parks. ESA’s Director of Education and […]
  • Mon, 23 Sep 2019 19:08:16 +0000: Policy News: September 23, 2019 - EcoTone: news and views on ecological science
    In This Issue: North American bird populations decrease an estimated 30% in 50 years Common bird species severely impacted. Senate Appropriations Bills Include Increases for Department of Energy and Agricultural Research Programs The Department of Energy’s Office of Science receives a 9.6% increase. Administration Finalizes EIS for drilling the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge The House […]
  • Mon, 23 Sep 2019 16:18:21 +0000: Wind-wildlife interactions are focus of newest Issues in Ecology report - EcoTone: news and views on ecological science
    The Ecological Society of America (ESA) announces the publication of a new report, “Impacts to Wildlife of Wind Energy Siting and Operation in the United States,” in ESA’s Issues in Ecology publication.

 

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